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Photography on a Large Scale

One of the aims of the Collections People Stories project is to properly image and accurately document a much larger part of our Anthropology collections than has ever been done before. While most of our objects are fairly small, the size of some objects offer some extra challenges.

In June 2014, I started planning for the “Long Object Photography” Project, which was about photographing very long objects from our Anthropology collection as part of the Collection People Stories Project that had been running since June 2012.

The objects to be photographed by me and reviewed by the CPS teams were mainly canoes, some of them up to 7.5metres long. Some of these object had no record shots or if they had they were not good enough for a documentation point of view.

The main issue was space: where to photograph such long objects? Our studio space wouldn’t be big enough so my first idea was to photograph them outside but in order to do so we would need to build a marquee to protect the objects from the environment.

After a lot of discussions and visits from specialist art movers we realised that the biggest canoe would only come out of its storage if the entire shelf surrounding it came apart and for that to happen we would need to make a lot of space beforehand, breaking down other shelves around it.

Once this was agreed, I then reassessed the area and came up with an indoors solution for the photography set up, which not only would allow the objects to be in a safer environment but also meant we would spend much less on hiring the marquee. This new solution meant that all the electric cables and wires attached to the photographic equipment would be hanging from the ceiling, meaning a much safer working condition for all the staff needed to make this project happen.

On 24th November, the specialist art movers arrived and started breaking down Hall 1 at SCC – the Horniman Museum storage area where the canoes are located – and leaving the canoes ready for the conservators to clean them.

On the 5th December we started the photography – which was like being in a film set, with lots of people around where each had their own role and just had to be waiting to get in action when needed. By the end of the week we had managed to photograph and review the objects and on the following week the art movers put everything back in place.

I also made a time-lapse of the whole process, so you can have a taste of how it all worked out. A bit of a behind the scene!

 You can find out more about our behind the scenes work at our event Secret Late.

Seeing Double

Documentation Assistant Rachel updates us on what the Collections People Stories team are getting up to in the stores.

Having reviewed over 27,000 objects from the Anthropology collection to date, the teams are currently pausing to carry out another important task: removing duplicate object records from our database.

Why do we have duplicates? Over the long history of the Horniman, some of our objects have become detached from their identifying numbers, labels, or other documentation. These have been assigned temporary numbers so that we can still keep track of everything that we have. Thanks to sterling detective work by our curators and the review teams, we are now able to identify some of these objects and reconcile them with our original accession records.

The teams are currently trawling through the database, copying all of the information from the temporary records into the ‘real’ record for each object and then deleting the redundant duplicates. This tidying work is important: the aim is that eventually each object will have only one record containing all of its information, so that we know exactly how many items we have in the collection, and where they all are. Duplicated information can cause confusion for both staff and visitors, and just makes our database look untidy!

The process may sound somewhat laborious (and it is!), but it is also quite exciting: a number of the objects with temporary numbers are from our founding collection, acquired over the years by Frederick Horniman and first catalogued between 1897 and 1899. It is very satisfying to restore the true identities of our oldest objects. The earliest number so far reconciled is object number 18, a beautiful Japanese clay figure of two shishi (lions) fighting.

Other important objects reconciled with their original numbers are these two Belu heads from Burma.

They are number 649 in our accession register, and they are important not just for being part of Mr Horniman’s collection, but they were also collected by him on a journey he made to Burma in the late 1890s after he retired from the tea trade.

So far we have reconciled the records for over 500 objects, including spoons, skillets, swords, charms, containers and chess pieces. There is a long way to go, and it will take years (if ever!) to achieve a duplicate-free database, but we are making a good start.

Keep up with the team from the stores on Twitter @HornimanReviews, or follow their Tumblr blog for more fascinating finds from the stores.

The Islington Twins and Ibeiji

Assistant Curators Tom and Johanna share the story of another behind the scenes visit and reveal some of our collections objects representing 'twinness'.

A couple of weeks ago we hosted a visit from the charming, stylish and erudite Chuka and Dubem Okonkwo, aka Chet and Joe, aka The Islington Twins. Well known on the London fashion, fine art and general culture circuit Chet and Joe make a big impression even before you meet them: they are identical twins, who more often than not dress identically.

Chet and Joe’s parents come from Onitsha, a city in Southern Nigeria. They told us how:

In Onitsha... twins are considered a double blessing. If they are identical twins, their parents are considered to be extremely lucky. We've always found the jubilant reaction from Africans who meet us in London peculiar. Westerners are excited with the idea of seeing 'two peas in a pod'(we don't believe there's such a thing), and curious about whether we feel each other's pain. Africans tend to bless us and our parents. Over the years we've been blessed by many strangers.

At the Horniman we have a collection of ibeiji twin figures, and other objects from around the world associated with ‘twinness’, which we were keen to share with Chet and Joe. Ibeiji are very moving objects, made on the sad occasion of the death of a twin at or shortly after birth. They are traditionally said to hold the soul of the twin, cared for by the family in the same way one might care for a loved-one. Some of our examples show signs of the careful attention once bestowed upon them, with marks where they have been gently and repeatedly rubbed.

We wanted to show Chet and Joe some light-hearted objects too. Since they are known for their love of English clothing and can at times cut a dapper dash we shared some of our favourite fashion items made in Nigeria, yet very British indeed. These included a strange little model of a District Officer in horn-rimmed glasses, a smart little jacket, a pith helmet and a nice little pipe. It is the work of Thomas Ona Odulate, a well known Yoruba artist who made fun of colonial administrators through such models between 1900 and 1950.

  • Detail of an adire Oba shirt depicting King George V and Queen Mary along with scorpions, a Guinea fowl and a peacock, The shirt is printed with indigo using a stencil cut from a British tea cadd
    The shirt is printed with indigo using a stencil cut from a British tea cadd

Chet and Joe were only at our stores for a couple of hours, but they managed to say something positive and sometimes even inspiring to almost everyone working there. We were left with the feeling that we had met two very unusual and rather wonderful people.

Adventures in the Costume Stores

Jack Davy is part of the Horniman's Collections People Stories team, working to carry out a review of our vast and varied Anthropology collections. Here, he explains the importance of photographing objects and uncovers some gems from the stores.

Over the last few months, as part of the Collections People Stories project, I have been working one day a week at the Horniman stores on the collections of European and Asian costume.

The Horniman has an enormous, diverse and fascinating collection of clothing and textiles from all over the world. Many of these objects are inherently fragile and therefore can only be put on display for short periods of time.

Thankfully, modern technology allows for much greater interaction between the public and these delicate objects, many of which are accompanied by stories of travel, adventure and ingenuity.

  • Albanian tunic, 18.2.53/24
    18.2.53/24

This is where I come in.

My role involved taking photographs of costume that can be used to provide a record of the object at a particular point in time. This is useful for a number of reasons:

  • Slovakian apron, 1.8.65/1
    1.8.65/1

  • It enables the museum’s curators to send images to experts (many living in far-flung places), who can provide detailed feedback on the costumes. Then these objects can be incorporated into wider narratives of human society that underpin the study and display of anthropology at the museum.
  • These photos will help the museum’s conservation team in the future to compare the photographs to the objects checking for any deterioration or damage over time- a constant concern with these kind of fragile objects.
  • It enables the general public, whether expert or not, to view and interact with these collections remotely.

  • Chinese silk jacket, nn525
    nn525

Both the European and Asian costume collections at the Horniman are remarkably strong, including a diverse array of clothing worn at important festivals and feast days.

  • Gujarati dress, nn3577
    nn3577

If you are interested in learning more, why not explore the Horniman's collections online to discover thousands of objects already reviewed, and let us know what you think. You can also get in touch with the project team on Twitter.

A Chung Tai Shan Visit

As part of the Collections People Stories our Anthropology team have been hosting various expert groups on visits to the Museum and our stored collections to help us learn more about the objects and share them with their source communities. Assistant Curator Tom has updated us on the latest.

Back in August we were honoured to host a visit from a group of monks and nuns, adherents of Taiwan’s Chung Tai Shan Monastery.

It was a very busy day at the museum and the group attracted quite a lot of attention in their elegant brown robes. At the reception, where we arranged to meet the group, things were particularly hectic, but the maelstrom of shouting children and harassed parents didn’t seem to faze our visitors. Instead they appeared to be pleased by their surroundings, responding to gawping faces with polite nods and benevolent smiles. One nun said to me - just audible over the din - “Here is a paradise for children”.

Our visitors, as well as being practicing monks and nuns held positions in the administration of Taiwan’s enormous Chung Tai Shan Monastery - home to over 1,500 resident devotees - or were involved in the running of the monastery’s daughter establishments, which are located at sites all over the world. Chung Tai Shan Monastery has a museum attached to it with an impressive collection of Buddhist objects and our visitors included the museum’s director, a curator, an exhibition designer and a conservator.

Faced with such an impressive array of expertise we did our best to show the group a representative selection of the different types of work undertaken by the Horniman. Their tour took in the curatorial, conservation and learning departments.

In Conservation, they were able to take a close look at a collection of Tibetan figures recently treated by the department.

While the team working on our upcoming exhibition, Romania Revisited, were able to give some insight into how the displays were developed behind the scenes.

We also took the visitors up to the Animal Walk to admire the baby alpaca. It was an inspired idea, the alpacas were a hit and the group even came up with a strong contender for the newborn’s name: Chuan Yang (ε‚³ηΎŠ) a title which combines Chinese for ‘sheep’ with the potential for eventual reincarnation as a Buddha.

Find out more about how the Horniman's Anthropology team are working to better understand our collections and share them with other groups on the Collections People Stories project pages.

Five Go Collecting: Traditional Healers in Palawan

Dalia is one of the five modern-day collectors selected by the Royal Anthropological Institute to take part in the Horniman Collecting Initiative. Here she reports on her fieldwork with the traditonal Palawan healers of the Philippines.

In many areas of the Philippines, traditional medical practitioners continue to be the main providers of health care. In the course of my fieldwork, the most common practitioner that I came across in the Palawan ethnic group were 'balyan', who rely on visualisations and invocation of spirits during healing practices.

Balyan use a variety of objects in their every-day practices and many were keen that some of these objects be donated and displayed at the Horniman Museum and Gardens in order to help maintain their cultural practices which they feel are under threat.

In order to select the most appropriate objects for the museum, I trained various healers to use digital cameras in order to visually document their practices and the objects that they use.

Following an initial training session, participants were given cameras for a period of 1-3 weeks and at the end I collected the cameras and printed the participant’s pictures.

The pictures were then used as the basis of qualitative interviews and allowed healers to decide what objects best reflect and convey their work.

In one case, Sario Langi, a balyan, used his camera to take pictures over 3 weeks whilst treating a variety of patients. One evening, a man came to him feeling very weak. Sario felt his pulse whilst calling upon the spirits to assist him in his diagnosis (turon). He also used a 'tari-tari'.

Tari-Tari is a diagnostic tool, a bamboo stick with honeybee wax at one end from which a piece of 'rocoroco' (Ocimum sanctum or Holy basil) is attached. Sario’s tari-tari was made by his father (also a balyan) and he inherited it from him after his death. The tari-tari is the same length as the span of Sario’s hand, but it will become longer or shorter to respectively confirm or refute the questions that Sario asks it.

In this way, Sario was able to diagnose that the man was suffering from 'pintas' (curse or evil words), probably spoken by a scorned lover. The tari-tari is crucial to Sario’s work, so he kindly made one to donate to the Horniman.

As a treatment, Sario gave him a 'pananga' which is an example of a repellent (panulak). This small cloth pouch, sewn by Sario’s wife Pina, contained 7 specific herbal plants and roots which, if tied by a string round the waist, reverse the curse and help defend the patient against further attacks. 

Sario inherited the knowledge of which 7 plants to use from his ancestors who appear to him through prayer. Sario collects these plants from the surrounding forest and stores them in a woven basket made by his father. Sario kindly donated this basket to the Horniman along with some pananga.

As well as illnesses caused by human agents, Sario can diagnose those caused by malevolent spirits. Using his camera, he documented his treatment of these illnesses.

He enters a sleeping state (natutulog) so that his own soul leaves his body and is replaced with a spirit with whom he can communicate. He adorns a headband that has sprigs of rocoroco (Ocimum sanctum or Holy basil) tucked into it, closes his eyes and start to use 'tawar' (incantations) to invite the spirit in. Sario feels himself becoming dizzy at this point is unable to ‘see’ what is happening in the human world.

He then picks specific sprigs of rocoroco which he waves in a circular motion over the patient along with 'silad' (pom poms) made from Mangrove Fan Palm (Licuala spinosa) accompanied by incantations (tawar) to call good spirits to his aid. Sario’s daughter took pictures of him using the silad which have now also been donated to the museum.

Five Go Collecting: Coin Garlands of the Marma Community

Farhana is one of five modern-day collectors selected by the Royal Anthropological Institute to research and acquire new objects for our collections. Here she reveals what she has learnt about an intriguing family heirloom in a Bangladesh community.

When I first came to Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts in January 2013, I interviewed two women from the area's Marma community in the town of Bandarban. We discussed coin garlands, which are family heirlooms which act as a link to their Burmese heritage. The women were originally from Ruma, which is close to the border with Myanmar (Burma).

Since then, I have looked into the custom of coin garland making. The men of the family would collect the coins and when they had a sufficient number, they would make a garland. The garland would be given to the eldest daughter as dowry to take with her into marriage.

Women used to wear the garlands all day, while working and sleeping, carrying their ‘personal value’ with them mainly because there was no way of keeping valuables safe in their remote bamboo homes. Today, the garlands are worn on special occasions or at Marma cultural events. 

The garlands are typically made up of Indian Rupee coins, sometimes threaded on string or on a small chain. Sometimes there are plastic beads between the coins or white metal beads made from melted-down coins. I am told the garland designs are Burmese in origin but that the makers had to rely on local Bengali smelting techniques and craftsmanship as well as local materials such as plastic beads and chains.

When I visited the Tribal Cultural Institute in Bandarban, I found garlands made from Indian Rupee coins with the heads of Queen Victoria, Edward VII and George V and East Pakistan Taka coins depicting George VI. Equally interesting is the fact that all the local tribes wear and value similar garlands.

Whilst the Marma call the garland 'Puaitha Loing Hrui', other tribes have different names. The Chak call it 'Tang Grik'; the Mro, 'Keng Leng' and the Lusai 'Cheng Thui'.

The coin garlands reflect the chequered history of the region. At different points in time, the people of the Chittagong hills have been incorporated into an ever-changing larger state, becoming minorities first in India, then in British India, then in Greater East Pakistan and finally in Bangladesh.

The British Empire played a prominent role here: the region was annexed as far back as 1860, becoming a British protectorate to keep the tribes safe against raids by a collection of guerrilla tribes.

Since the 1970s, this area has experienced huge upheaval, guerrilla warfare, and a Government-encouraged Bengali immigration. The latter was in response to the growing impoverishment of the Bengali population due to famine, disappearing delta land and a need to move to higher and fertile ground. The migration of Bengali people into the Hill Tracts was also seen as a way of integrating the Hill Peoples into Bangladeshi culture.

Therefore this area has many competing identities, with tribal people living alongside Bengalis and a fluid border. Objects such as these coin garlands reflect these multiple and dynamic influences.

Collecting a Coin Garland for the Horniman Museum

Returning to Bangladesh this year, I put out the word that I was interested in collecting a Marma coin garland for the museum because the object reflects not only the history of the area but carries cultural meaning for this community that has migrated to this area from Burma in the 1600s.

Many coin garlands vanished during the insurgency period in the CHT (1971-1997) or had already been sold to collectors. After months of gentle reminders, I received news that a family in Ruma wanted to sell their coin garland. Leaving our motorbikes behind, we walked the narrow trails along jum (slash and burn) cultivated slopes and mountain ridges to Ruma. However when we arrived, the family had changed their mind about the garland so we set off to another village to find another.

When I began chatting with the children in this village in a mixture of Bengali and Marma, the elders came out to see us and the owner of the coin garland invited me into his house. He was not willing to sell his garland but allowed me to see it, and I was able to ask him questions about the significance of it to him and his family. I explained how long I had been walking and was so far away from anything I recognised yet nonetheless here on his table, were coins with my British king on them! They laughed with me. Why, I asked, did they collect coins with another king’s head on? They were after all subject to their own king – the Bohmong Raja - but here they were wearing the coins of another king from very far away. He pointed out that these British kings were the ‘kings of everywhere’ and that the coins held great power and value as a result. My meeting with this owner drew a crowd from the village and everyone listened to the stories recounted.

After two more visits to Ruma, I was told of a lady who wanted to sell her coin garland. She grew up with her grandparents because her mother had died when she was 5 years old. Her grandparents gave her the garland when she was 15 years old. As her husband died in 1999 and she has no children, she had no one to pass the garland on to. The thread is original; there are 12 Pakistani coins, 11 taka coins and 27 connecting beads – silver coins melted down. Some of the coins are missing, possibly 3 in total.

When I met this lady for the first time, she uncovered different parts of the necklace slowly. They were hidden in different places in somebody else’s house. The necklace was not fully strung: there were loose coins and a broken string. We laid out the necklace so that we could take a photograph of her with her heirloom and she indicated how the necklace should look.

Back in the UK, the necklace was fixed before being handed over to the Horniman.

I wore it so that I could feel its weight and imagine what it must have felt like to wear such a heavy ornament all day. Worn by three generations of women, far away in the exotic remote hill tracts on the border between South Asia and South East Asia, this ornament is not only rich in history and meaning, but is also quietly exquisite.

#MuseumMatch Highlights

For the knockout stages of this year's World Cup, we took to Twitter to share objects from the competing countries in #MuseumMatch.

While we were unfortunately unable to share any of our objects from England, our collections contain a wealth of objects from around the world, including all the countries which made it to the later stages of the tournament.

We picked some of the most interesting, intriguing and inspiring objects usually hidden in the stores to reveal to our Twitter followers.

Asking our followers to make a choice allowed us to get some idea of which ojects able to spark their interest, and what information they most wanted to learn.

Some things were expected, such as the popularity of animal-shaped objects.

But even some objects which we thought may be off-putting sparked some real interest and conversation with our followers.

The choices made led us to reveal more information about the objects in each pairing...

....as well as carry on conversation into the finer points of each object.

But things really got going in the later stages of the competition, when our semi-final and final Museum Matches seemed to eerly predict the outcome of the World Cup games.

First our object from Germany (seen above) trounced the choice from Brazil. The anatomical model chosen by many, leaving the Brazilian figure in the dust.

Then our Argentina/Netherlands matchup resulted in the first #MuseumMatch draw.

And finally, tweeting 2 days ahead of the World Cup Final #MuseumMatch experienced some early interest in Argentina.

But then.

More accurate than an octopus?

 

Thanks to everyone who participated in #MuseumMatch. You can look through all of our tweets on the subjects by following the #MuseumMatch hashtag on Twitter.

A Tibetan gathering at the Horniman

Assistant Curator Tom updates us on a recent visit from a Tibetan group to the Horniman.

Two weeks ago Tibetans of mixed parentage came from all over the world to attend a unique gathering in London. One of the core ideas behind the gathering was put to Tibetans of mixed parentage in touch with each other and the Tibetan diaspora as a whole.

Dechen Pemba, who worked with us on our Tibet Food Workshop brought the group to the Horniman.

Alongside permanent displays of Tibetan material in the Music and Centenary Galleries we are currently showing a temporary exhibition of Tibetan Buddhist clay figures, so there was quite a lot to look at and discuss.

It was very interesting to browse our Tibetan exhibits with the group and it made me think about who we display our objects for. With the exception of Dechen, all the visitors were at most half Tibetan. Some had experience of the objects on display, whilst others had not. Some were very involved with Tibetan culture whilst others were not so much so. For all of the group however, the Tibetan objects on display had a particular significance, which was not something shared by other museum visitors.

The information which I could provide about the objects was mainly about the people who had collected them, and didn’t seem particularly relevant to the stories and experiences of the group.

In fact the most interesting thing about the visit was the backgrounds of the different members of the group and the similarities and differences of their experiences growing up mixed Tibetan in differing parts of the world. One member from Arizona told me about how back at home he had a Navajo friend who would turn up to Tibetan meetings and everyone would be none the wiser, mistaking him for Tibetan. He also drew comparisons between the use of silver and turquoise by Navajos and Tibetans. I was very pleased to tell him that the Horniman has played host to both the creation of a sand mandala by monks from Tserkamo Monastery in Ladakh and a sandpainting by Navajo medicine man Fred Stevens Klah.

Another member of the group - who couldn’t be present at the Horniman - was descended from Rinchen Lhamo, a Tibetan woman who had married diplomat Louis Magrath King, probably the first Tibetan-British marriage.

In 1925 they moved to England and Rinchen Lhamo wrote We Tibetans (Seeley Service, 1926), one of the first books written by a Tibetan about Tibetan culture to be published in English. Sadly, in 1929 Richen Lamo succumbed to tuberculosis and died at the age of 29. She is buried in Hildenborough churchyard, alongside her husband.

It was fantastic to welcome the group to the Horniman and gather their perspectives on our Tibetan collections. You can find out more about our work with London's Tibetan Community in the video below.

Football: the Global Game

Political geographer David Storey tells us how football reflects complex connections between people, place and identity.

As a political geographer, my interest in football conveniently dovetails with my academic interests in territory, place and identity.

Football can, with some validity, be regarded as the ultimate global game.

Colonial connections partly explain its early geographic diffusion while its growing contemporary popularity is bolstered through global media coverage and merchandising relating to international teams and European club sides.

Football's popularity is most likely linked to its flexibility; it requires little in the way of expensive technical equipment. Some open space, imagination and improvisation are all that is required.

Balls can be manufactured out of almost anything allowing young people to play on patches of ground virtually anywhere.

Football is one medium through which the global and the local intersect.

The children kicking an improvised ball may dream of stardom. Indeed, recent decades have seen African countries make some impact on the international stage with five African teams competing in the 2014 World Cup finals, and two (Algeria and Nigeria) making it through to the knock-out stage.

South Africa's hosting of the 2010 tournament certainly promoted interest in the sport on the continent but also sparked external interest, seen in the publication of an array of books on football in Africa.

To an extent, football puts places on the map.

Senegal's historic win over France, the former title holders, at the 2002 World Cup is a classic example of a country little known to many attaining David and Goliath style victory, a feat all the more resonant for the Senegalese as it came at the expense of their former colonial power.

Football in Africa remains bound into wider global processes, and players are increasingly part of a global sports labour market. The out-migration of young footballing talent to western Europe (particularly France and Spain) is a growing phenomenon.

On the one hand, such routes to migration are the result of historical, linguistic and colonial connections. But increasingly, transnational scouting systems, football agents, and the growth of academies in African countries (who act as conduits of talent to European clubs) encourage more diverse movements to places such as Russia and Ukraine.

While the rewards of a top-class career prove enticing for many, the reality for others may be radically different. Not everyone becomes Ivory Coast's Didier Drogba or Ghana's Michael Essien. There is serious concern over the fate of teenagers some of whom find themselves alone on the streets of European cities after failing to sufficiently impress an elite club.

The migration of talented footballers clearly has negative consequences for the development of football in Africa, as the best players seek better wages and greater fame outside of Africa.

Another dimension to this loss of talent is the number of players born in Africa, or of African parentage, who represent European countries in international competition.

One of the world's great players, Eusebio, who died recently, although forever associated with Portugal and SL Benfica was actually born and brought up in Mozambique.

A long history of migration means that many French teams of recent years have featured players of African origin. Most notably Zinedine Zidane and Karim Benzema - both born in France to Algerian parents.

Flexible and fluid

While the incorporation of these players reflects a more multi-cultural French society (a phenomenon decried by the French far right) some might wish they wore the colours of the familial homeland. The current multi-ethnic Belgian team features players from a range of immigrant backgrounds such as Marouane Fellaini, whose father was a Moroccan footballer, and Romelu Lukaku whose father played for Zaire (now DR Congo).

Alongside this, something of a reverse process is taking place, as countries take advantage of more flexible regulations. Algeria has effectively reclaimed many sons of its diaspora. The majority of players in its current World Cup squad were born in France to Algerian migrant parents.

This highlights the fluidity and multi-layered nature of national identity in football today. Belgium’s captain, Vincent Kompany (born in Brussels to a Congolese father and Belgian mother) recently declared himself to be both 100% Belgian and 100% Congolese.

This transnationalism has also given rise to the intriguing phenomenon of siblings playing for different countries. The Berlin-born Boateng half-brothers lined up against each other at the current and previous World Cups. Kevin Prince Boateng plays for Ghana (their father's birthplace) and Jerome represents Germany where their mother was born.

Football reflects many of the complex connections between people, place and identity.

The enjoyment experienced by Malian children kicking their makeshift 'ball' is mirrored in recent days as fans have taken to the streets of Marseille's old port area in displays of public jubilation for the Algerian team success in the World Cup. In that same place, a few years ago a billboard poster of Zidane (the son of Algerian immigrants) was prominently displayed, hailing the local sporting hero of France’s national team.

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